The sensitive Muslim woman takes care of her mind just as she takes care of her body, because the former is no less important than the latter. Long ago, the poet Zuhayr ibn Abi Sulma said:
“A man’s tongue is half of him, and the other half is his heart; What is left is nothing more than the image of flesh and blood.”
This means that a person is essentially composed of his heart and his tongue, in other words what he thinks and what he says. Hence the importance of taking care of one’s mind and supplying it with all kinds of beneficial knowledge is quite clear.
The Muslim woman is responsible just as a man is, so she is also required to seek knowledge, whether it is “religious” or “secular”, that will be of benefit to her. When she recites the ayah “But say, ‘O my Rabb! Advance me in knowledge.’" (Qur’an 20: 114) and hears the hadith, “Seeking knowledge is a duty on every Muslim,” she knows that the teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah are directed at men and women equally, and that she is also obliged to seek the kinds of knowledge that have been made obligatory for individuals and communities (fardh ‘ayn and fardh kifayah) to pursue them from the time that this obligation was made known to the Muslim society.
The Muslim woman understands the high value that has been placed on knowledge since the earliest days of Islam. The women of the Anas asked the Prophet (s.a.w.s.): “Appoint a special day for us when we can learn from you, for the men have taken all your time and left nothing for us.” He told them, “Your time is in the house of so-and-so (one of the women).” So he came to them at that place and taught them there.
The Muslim women had a keen desire for knowledge, and they never felt too shy to ask questions about the teachings (ahkam) of Islam, because they were asking about the truth, and (Allah is not ashamed [to tell you] the truth) (Qur’an 33: 53). Many reports illustrate the confidence and maturity with which the early Muslim women posed questions to the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), this great teacher, seeking to understand their religion more fully.
‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Asma bint Yazid ibn al-Sakan al-Anasriyyah asked the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) about performing ghusl after a period. He said, “Let one of you (who has finished her period) take her water and purify herself properly, then pour water over herself, then take a piece of cloth that has been perfumed with musk, and clean herself with it.” Asma (May Allah be pleased with her) asked, “How should she clean herself?” The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, “Subahn Allah! You clean yourself with it!” ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) told her in a whisper, “Wipe away the traces of blood.”
Asma also asked him about performing ghusl when one is in a state of janabah. He said, “You should take your water and purify yourself with it properly, and clean yourself all over, then pour water on your head and rub it so that the water reaches the roots of the hair, then pour water all over yourself.” 
‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) said, “How good are the women of the Anasr! Shyness did not prevent them from understanding their religion properly.” 
Umm Sulaym bint Milhan, the mother of Anas ibn Malik, came to the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, Allah (S.W.T.) is not ashamed (to tell) the truth, so tell me, does a woman have to perform ghusl if she has an erotic dream?” The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said, “Yes, if she sees water (i.e., a discharge).” Umm Salamah covered her face out of shyness, and said, “O Messenger of Allah, could a woman have such a dream?” He said, “Yes, may your right hand be covered with dust, otherwise how could her child resemble her?” 
Muslim reports that Umm Sulaym came to the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), when ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) was with him, and when Umm Sulaym asked this question, ‘Aishah said, “O Umm Sulaym, you have exposed women’s secret, may your right hand be rubbed with dust!” The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said to ‘Aishah, “Rather your hand should be rubbed with dust; O Umm Sulaym, let a woman perform ghusl if she saw such a dream.”
The women of that unique generation never hesitated to strive to understand their religion; they would put questions directly to the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) about whatever happened to them. If they doubted a person’s opinion (fatwa), or were not convinced of it, they would enquire further until they were sure that they understood the matter properly. This is the attitude of the wise and intelligent woman. This was the attitude of Subay‘ah bint al-aArith al-Aslamiyyah, the wife of Sa‘d ibn Khawlah, who was from Banu ‘Amir ibn Lu’ayy and had been present at Badr. He died during the Farewell Pilgrimage; she was pregnant, and gave birth shortly after his death. When her nifas ended, she prepared herself to receive offers of marriage. Abu’l-Sanabil ibn Ba‘kak (a man from Banu ‘Abdul-Dar) came to her and said, “Why do I see you preparing to receive offers of marriage? By Allah (S.W.T.), you will never get married until four months and tens days have passed.” Subay‘ah (later) narrated: “When he said this to me, I got dressed and went to see the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) in the evening. I asked him about it, and he told me that my ‘iddah had ended when I gave birth to my child, and said that I could get married if I wished.” 
Subay‘ah’s efforts to understand the shar‘i ruling precisely represents a blessing and benefit not only for Subay‘ah herself, but for all Muslim women until the Day of Judgement. Her hadith was accepted by the majority of earlier and later scholars, above all the four Imams, who said that the ‘iddah of a widowed woman, if she is pregnant, lasts until she gives birth, even if she were to give birth so soon after her husband’s death that his body had not yet been washed and prepared for burial, and it becomes permissible for her to re-marry. 
What a great service Subay‘ah did to the scholars of the Muslim ummah by seeking to understand the shar‘i rulings precisely and to reach a level of certainty about this issue.
Islam has made the pursuit of knowledge obligatory on women and men alike, as the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: “Seeking knowledge is a duty on every Muslim.” In other words, it is a duty on every person, man or woman, who utters the words of the shahadah, so it comes as no surprise to see Muslim women thirsting for knowledge, devoting themselves to its pursuit. Muslim women of all times and places have understood the importance of seeking beneficial knowledge, and the positive effects this has on their own characters and on their children, families and societies. So they seek knowledge enthusiastically, hoping to learn whatever will benefit them in this world and the next.
What a Muslim Woman Needs to Know
The first thing that the Muslim woman needs to know is how to read the Qur’an properly (with tajwid), and to understand its meaning. Then she should learn something of the sciences of hadith, the sirah of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), and the history of the women of the Saahbah and Tabi‘in, who are prominent figures in Islam. She should acquire as much knowledge of fiqh as she needs to ensure that her worship and daily dealings are correct, and she should ensure that she has a sound grasp of the basic principles of her religion.
Then she should direct her attention to her primary speciality in life, which is to take proper care of her house, husband, family and children, for she is the one whom Allah (S.W.T.) has created specially to be a mother and to give tranquillity and happiness to the home. She is the one to whom Islam has given the immense responsibility of raising intelligent and courageous children. Hence there are many proverbs and sayings nowadays which reflect the woman’s influence on the success of her husband and children in their working lives, such as, “Look for the woman,” “Behind every great man is a woman,” and “The one who rocks the cradle with her right hand rocks the world with her left,” etc. No woman can do all of that unless she is open-minded and intelligent, strong of personality and pure of heart. So she is more in need of education, correction and guidance in forming her distinct Islamic personality.
It is unwise for women’s education to be precisely the same as that of men. There are some matters that concern women only, that men cannot deal with; and there are matters that concern men only, that women cannot deal with. There are things for which women were created, and others for which men were created, and each person should do that for which he or she was created, as the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) taught. When the Muslim woman seeks to learn and specialize in some field, she should bear in mind the Islamic teaching regarding her intellectual, psychological and social make-up, so that she will prepare herself to fulfil the basic purpose for which she was created, and will become a productive and constructive member of her family, society and ummah, not an imitation of men, competing with them for work and taking up a position among men, as we see in those societies which do not differentiate between males and females in their educational curricula and employment laws.
Whatever a woman’s academic speciality is, she tries to understand it thoroughly and do her work perfectly, in accordance with the teaching of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.):
“Allah (S.W.T.) loves for any of you, when he does something, to do it well.” 
Muslim Women’s Achievements in the Field of Knowledge
The gates of knowledge are open to the Muslim woman, and she may enter whichever of them she chooses, so long as this does not go against her feminine nature, but develops her mind and enhances her emotional growth and maturity. We find that history is full of prominent examples of remarkable women who sought knowledge and became highly proficient.
Foremost among them is the Mother of the Believers ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her), who was the primary source of hadith and knowledge of the sunnah, and was the first faqihah in Islam when she was still a young woman no more than nineteen years of age.
Imam al-Zuhri said: “If the knowledge of ‘Aishah were to be gathered up and compared to the knowledge of all the other wives of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and all other women, ‘Aishah’s knowledge would be greater.”
How often did the greatest of the Saahbah refer to her, to hear the final word on matters of the fundamentals of Islam and precise meanings of the Qur’an.
Her knowledge and deep understanding were not restricted only to matters of religion; she was equally distinguished in poetry, literature, history and medicine, and other branches of knowledge that were known at that time. The faqih of the Muslims, ‘Urwah ibn al-Zubayr, was quoted by his son Hisham as saying: “I have never seen anybody more knowledgeable in fiqh or medicine or poetry than ‘Aishah.”
Imam Muslim reports that she heard her nephew Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (r.a.) make a grammatical mistake, when he and his (paternal) cousin were talking in front of her, and she told him off for this mistake. Imam Muslim commented on this incident: “Ibn ‘Atiq said: ‘Al-Qasim and I were talking in front of ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her), and Al-Qasim was one who made frequent mistakes in grammar, as his mother was not an Arab. ‘Aishah said to him, “Why do you not speak like this son of my brother? I know where the problem comes from: he was brought up by his mother, and you were brought up by your mother…” 
Among the reports in which the books of literature speak of the vast knowledge of ‘Aishah is that which describes how ‘Aishah bint Talhah was present in the circle of Hisham ibn ‘Abdul-Malik, where the sheikhs of Banu Umayyah were present. They did not mention any point of Arab history, wars and poetry but she did not contribute to the discussion, and no star appeared but she did not name it. Hisham said to her, “As for the first (i.e., knowledge of history etc.), I find nothing strange (in your knowing about it), but where did you get your knowledge about the stars?” She said, “I learnt it from my (maternal) aunt ‘Aishah.”
‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) had a curious mind and was always eager to learn. Whenever she heard about something she did not know, she would ask about it until she understood it. Her closeness to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) meant that she was like a vessel full of knowledge.
Imam Bukhari reports from Abu Mulaykah that ‘Aishah, the wife of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) never heard anything that she did not know, but she would keep going over it until she understood it. The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, “Whoever is brought to account will be punished.” ‘Aishah said: “I said, ‘But does Allah (S.W.T.) not say (’soon his account will be taken by an easy reckoning’) (Qur’an 84: 8)” He said, “That refers to al-‘ard (when everyone is brought before Allah [(S.W.T.) on the Day of Judgement)]; but whoever is examined in detail is doomed.” 
In addition to her great knowledge, ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) was also very eloquent in her speech. When she spoke, she captured the attention of her audience and moved them deeply. This is what made Al-Ahnaf Ibn Qays say:
“I heard the speeches of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali and the khulafa’ who came after them, but I never heard any speech more eloquent and beautiful than that of ‘Aishah.”
Musa ibn Talhah said: “I never saw anyone more eloquent and pure in speech than ‘Aishah.”
Another of these brilliant women who achieved a high level of knowledge was the daughter of Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyab, the scholar of his age, who refused to marry his daughter to the khalifah, ‘Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan, and instead married her to one of his righteous students, ‘Abdullah ibn Wada‘ah. ‘Abdullah went in to his wife, who was one of the most beautiful of people, and one of the most knowledgeable in Qur’an, Sunnah and the rights and duties of marriage. In the morning, ‘Abdullah got up and was preparing to go out. His wife asked him, “Where are you going?” He said, “To the circle of your father Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyab, so that I may learn.” She said, “Sit down; I will teach you what Sa‘id knows.” For one month, ‘Abdullah did not attend Sa‘id’s circle because the knowledge that this beautiful young girl had learned from her father (and was passing on to him) was sufficient.
Another of these prominent female scholars was Fatimah, the daughter of the author of Tuhfat al-fuqaha, ‘Ala al-Din al-Samarqandi (d. 539 AH). She was a faqihah and scholar in her own right: she had learned fiqh from her father and had memorized his book Al-Tuhfah. Her father married her to his student ‘Ala al-Din al-Kasani, who was highly distinguished in the fields of Al-usul and Al-furu’. He wrote a commentary on Tuhfat al-fuqaha entitled Bada’i‘ al-sana’i‘, and showed it to his sheikh, who was delighted with it and accepted it as a mahr for his daughter, although he had refused offers of marriage for her from some of the kings of Byzantium.. The fuqaha of his time said, “He commentated on his Tuhfah and married his daughter.” Before her marriage, Fatimah used to issue fatwas along with her father, and the fatwas would be written in her handwriting and that of her father. After she married the author of Al-Bada’i‘, the fatwas would appear in her handwriting and that of her father and her husband. Her husband would make mistakes, and she would correct them.
‘Aishah, the other wives of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), the daughter of Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyab, Fatimah al-Samarqandi and other famous women scholars were not something unique or rare among Muslim women. There were innumerable learned women, who studied every branch of knowledge and became prominent in many fields. Ibn Sa‘d devoted a chapter of Al-tabaqat to reports of Aadith transmitted by women, in which he mentioned more than seven hundred women who reported Hadith from the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), or from the trustworthy narrators among the saahbah; from these women in turn, many prominent scholars and imams also narrated hadith.
Al-aAfidh ibn ‘Asakir (d. 571 AH), one of the most reliable narrators of hadith, who was so trustworthy that he was known as ahfiz al-ummah, counted eighty-odd women among his sheikhs and teachers. If we bear in mind that this scholar never left the eastern part of the Islamic world, and never visited Egypt, North Africa or Andalusia - which were even more crowded with women of knowledge - we will see that the number of learned women he never met was far greater than those from whom he did receive knowledge.
One of the phrases used by scholars in the books of hadith is: “Al-sheikhah al-musnidah al-salihah so-and-so the daughter of so-and-so told me…” Among the names mentioned by Imam Bukhari are: Sitt al-Wuzara, Wazirah bint Muhammad ibn ‘Umar ibn As‘ad ibn al-Munajji al-Tunukhiyyah and Karimah bint Ahmad al-Maruziyyah. They are also mentioned by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqallani in the introduction to Fath al-Bari. 
The position of these great women is enhanced by the fact that they were sincere and truthful, far above any hint of suspicion or doubt - a status that many men could not reach. This was noted by Imam al-aAfidh Adh-Dhahabi in Mizan al-I‘tidal, where he states that he found four thousand men about whose reports he had doubts, then follows that observation with the comment: “I have never known of any woman who was accused (of being untrustworthy) or whose hadith was rejected.” 
The modern Muslim woman, looking at the magnificent heritage of women in Islamic history is filled with the desire for knowledge, as these prominent women only became famous and renowned throughout history by virtue of their knowledge. Their minds can only be developed, and their characters can only grow in wisdom, maturity and insight, through the acquisition of useful, beneficial and correct knowledge.
She is not Superstitious
The knowledgeable Muslim woman avoids all the foolish superstitions and nonsensical myths that tend to fill the minds of ignorant and uneducated women. The Muslim woman who understands the teachings of her religion believes that consulting and accepting the words of fortune-tellers, soothsayers, magicians and other purveyors of superstition and myths is one of the major sins that annul the good deeds of the believer and spell doom for him or her in the Hereafter. Muslim reports from some of the wives of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that he said:
“Whoever goes to a fortune-teller and asks him about anything, his prayers will not be accepted for forty days.” 
Abu Dawud reports the hadith of Abu Hurayrah in which the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said:
“Whoever goes to a fortune-teller and believes in what he says, has disbelieved in that which was revealed to Muhammad.” 
She Never Stops Reading and Studying
The Muslim woman does not let her household duties and the burdens of motherhood prevent her from reading widely, because she understands that reading is the source, which will supply her mind with nourishment, and knowledge, which it needs in order to flourish and grow.
The Muslim woman who understands that seeking knowledge is a duty required of her by her faith can never stop nourishing her mind with knowledge, no matter how busy she may be with housework or taking care of her children. She steals the odd moment, here and there, to sit down with a good book, or a useful magazine, so that she may broaden her horizons with some useful academic, social or literary knowledge, thus increasing her intellectual abilities.
3 - HER SOUL
The Muslim woman does not neglect to polish her soul through worship, dhikr (remembrance), and reading Qur’an; she never neglects to perform acts of worship at the appointed times. Just as she takes care of her body and mind, she also takes care of her soul, as she understands that the human being is composed of a body, a mind and a soul, and that all three deserve appropriate attention. A person may be distinguished by the balance he or she strikes between body, mind and soul, so that none is cared for at the expense of another. Striking this balance guarantees the development of a sound, mature and moderate character.
She Performs Acts of Worship Regularly and Purifies Her Soul
The Muslim woman pays due attention to her soul and polishes it through worship, doing so with a pure and calm approach that will allow the spiritual meanings to penetrate deep into her being. She removes herself from the hustle and bustle of life and concentrates on her worship as much as she is able to. When she prays, she does so with calmness of heart and clearness of mind, so that her soul may be refreshed by the meaning of the words of Qur’an, dhikr and tasbih that she is mentioning. Then she sits alone for a little while, praising and glorifying Allah, and reciting some ayat from His Book, and meditating upon the beautiful meanings of the words she is reciting. She checks her attitude and behavior every now and then, correcting herself if she has done anything wrong or fallen short in some way. Thus her worship will bring about the desired results of purity of soul, cleansing her of her sins, and freeing her from the bonds of Shaytan whose constant whispering may destroy a person. If she makes a mistake or stumbles from the Straight Path, the true Muslim woman soon puts it right, seeks forgiveness from Allah (S.W.T.), renounces her sin or error, and repents sincerely. This is the attitude of righteous, Allah-fearing Muslim women:
(Those who fear Allah, when a thought of evil from Shaytan assaults them, bring Allah to remembrance, when lo! They see aright.) (Qur’an 7: 201)
Therefore, the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) used to tell his Companions: “Renew your faith.” He was asked, “O Messenger of Allah, how do we renew our faith?” He said, “By frequently repeating la ilaha illa-Allah.” 
The Muslim woman always seeks the help of Allah (S.W.T.) in strengthening and purifying her soul by constantly worshipping and remembering Allah (S.W.T.), checking herself, and keeping in mind at all times what will please Allah (S.W.T.). So whatever pleases Him, she does, and what angers Him, she refrains from. Thus she will remain on the Straight Path, never deviating from it or doing wrong.
She Keeps Company with Righteous People and Joins Religious Gatherings
In order to attain this high status, the Muslim woman chooses righteous, Allah-fearing friends, who will be true friends and offer sincere advice, and will not betray her in word or deed. Good friends have a great influence in keeping a Muslim woman on the Straight Path, and helping her to develop good habits and refined characteristics. A good friend - in most cases - mirrors one’s behavior and attitudes:
“Do not ask about a man: ask about his friends, for every friend follows his friends.” 
Mixing with decent people is an indication of one’s good lineage and noble aims in life:
“By mixing with noble people you become one of them, so you should never regard anyone else as a friend.” 
So it is as essential to choose good friends as it is to avoid doing evil:
“If you mix with people, make friends with the best of them, do not make friends with the worst of them lest you become like them.” 
The Muslim woman is keen to attend gatherings where there is discussion of Islam and the greatness of its teachings regarding the individual, family and society, and where those present think of the power of Almighty Allah (S.W.T.) and His bountiful blessings to His creation, and encourage one another to obey His commandments, heed His prohibitions and seek refuge with Him. In such gatherings, hearts are softened, souls are purified, and a person’s whole being is filled with the joy of faith.
So ‘Abdullah ibn Rawhaah (r.a.), whenever he met one of the Companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), used to say, “Come, let us believe in our Rabb for a while.” When the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) heard about this, he said, “May Allah have mercy on Ibn Rawhaah, for he loves the gatherings that the angels feel proud to attend.” 
The rightly-guided khalifah ‘Umar al-Faruq (r.a.) used to make the effort to take a regular break from his many duties and the burden of his position as ruler. He would take the hand of one or two men and say, “Come on, let us go and increase our faith,” then they would remember Allah (S.W.T.).
Even ‘Umar (r.a.), who was so righteous and performed so many acts of worship, felt the need to purify his soul from time to time. He would remove himself for a while from the cares and worries of life, to refresh his soul and cleanse his heart. Likewise, Mu‘adh ibn Jabal (r.a.) would often say to his companions, when they were walking, “Let us sit down and believe for a while.”
The Muslim is responsible for strengthening his soul and purifying his heart. He must always push himself to attain a higher level, and guard against slipping down:
“By the Soul, and the proportion and order given to it; and by its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right - truly he succeeds that purifies it, and he fails that corrupts it!" (Qur’an 91: 7-10)
So the Muslim woman is required to choose with care the best friends and attend the best gatherings, so that she will be in an environment which will increase her faith and taqwa:
“And keep your soul content with those who call on their Rabb morning and evening, seeking His Face; and let not your eyes pass beyond them, seeking the pomp and glitter of this Life; nor obey any whose heart We have permitted to neglect the remembrance of Us, one who follows his own desires, whose case has gone beyond all bounds.” (Qur’an 18: 28)
She Frequently Repeats du‘as and Supplications Described in Ahadith
Another way in which the Muslim woman may strengthen her soul and connect her heart to Allah (S.W.T.) is by repeating the supplications which it is reported that the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) used to say on various occasions. So there is a du‘a’ for leaving the house, and others for entering the house, starting to eat, finishing a meal, wearing new clothes, lying down in bed, waking up from sleep, saying farewell to a traveller, welcoming a traveller back home, etc. There is hardly anything that the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did that he did not have a du‘a’ for, through which he asked Allah (S.W.T.) to bless him in his endeavour, protect him from error, guide him to the truth, decree good for him and safeguard him from evil, as is explained in the books of hadith narrated from the Prophet (s.a.w.s.). He used to teach these du‘a’s and adhkar to his Companions, and encouraged them to repeat them at the appropriate times.
The true Muslim woman is keen to learn these du‘a’s and adhkar, following the example of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and his distinguished Companions, and she keeps repeating them at the appropriate times, as much as she is able. In this way, her heart will remain focused on Allah (S.W.T.), her soul will be cleansed and purified, and her iman will increase.
The modern Muslim woman is in the utmost need of this spiritual nourishment, to polish her soul and keep her away from the temptations and unhealthy distractions of modern life, that could spell doom for women in societies which have deviated from the guidance of Allah (S.W.T.) and sent groups of women to Hell, as the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) indicated: “I looked into Hell, and saw that the majority of its inhabitants were women.” The Muslim woman who understands the teachings of her religion looks where she is going and strives to increase her good deeds, so that she may be saved from the terrifying trap into which the devils among mankind and jinn in all times and places try to make women fall.
 See Hashimi(ed.), Jumharah Ash‘ar al-‘Arab, 1/300, published by Dar al-Qalam, 1406 AH.
 A hasan hadith narrated by Ibn Majah, 1/81, in Al-Muqaddimah, bab fadl al-‘ulama’ wa’l-hath ‘ala talab al-‘ilm.
 Fath al-Bari, 1/195, Kitab al-‘ilm, bab hal yuj‘al li’l-nisa’ yawm ‘ala hidah fi’l-‘ilm.
 Fath al-Bari, 1/414, Kitab al-hayd, bab dalk al-mar’ah nafsaha idha tatahharat min al-muhid; Sahih Muslim, 4/15, 16, Kitab al-hayd, bab istihbab isti‘mal al-mutaghasilah min al-hayd al-misk.
 See Fath al-Bari, 1/228, Kitab al-‘ilm, bab al-haya’ fi’l-‘ilm; Sahih Muslim, 4/16, Kitab al-hayd, bab ghusl al-mustahadah wa salatiha.
 Fath al-Bari, 1/228, Kitab al-‘ilm, bab al-haya’ fi’l-‘ilm; Sahih Muslim, 3/223, 224, Kitab al-hayd, bab wujub al-ghusl ‘ala’l-mar’ah bi khuruj al-maniy minha.
 Sahih Muslim, 3/220, Kitab al-hayd, bab wujub al-ghusl ‘ala’lmar’ah bi khuruj al-maniy minha.
 See Fath al-Bari, 7/310, Kitab al-maghazi, bab istifta’ Subay‘ah bint al-aarith al-Aslamiyyah; Sahih Muslim, 10/110, Kitab al-talaq, bab inqida’ ‘iddah al-mutawafa ‘anha zawjuha wa ghayruha.
 See Sharh al-Nawawili Sahih Muslim, 10/109, Kitab al-talaq, bab inqida’ ‘iddah al-mutawafa ‘anha zawjuha bi wad‘ al-haml.
 A hasan hadith, narrated by Ibn Majah, 1/81, in Al-Muqaddimah, bab fadl al-‘ulama’ wa’l-hathth ‘ala talab al-‘ilm.
 A hasan hadith reported by Al-Bayhaqiin Shu‘ab al-iman, 4/334, from ‘Aishah.
 Al-Isti‘ab, 4/1883; Al-Isabah, 8/140.
 Tarikh at-Tabari: aawadith 58; Al-Samt al-Thamin, 82; Al-Isti‘ab, 4/1885.
 Sahih Muslim, 5/47, Kitab al-masajid, bab karahah al-îalat bi hadrat al-ta‘am.
 Al-Aghani, 10/57.
 Fath al-Bari, 1/196, Kitab al-‘ilm, bab man sami‘a shay’an fa raji‘ hatta ya‘rifuhu.
 Reported by Tirmidhi, 5/364, in Kitab al-munaqib, bab min fadl ‘Aishah; he said that it is hasan îahih gharib.
 Tuhfat al-fuqaha’, 1/12.
 Tabaqat al-shafi’iyyah, 4/273.
 Fath al-Bari, 1/7.
 Mizan al-i‘tidal, 3/395.
 See Sahih Muslim, 14/227, Kitab al-salam, bab tahrim al-kahanah wa ityan al-kahan.
 A hasan hadith narrated by Abu Dawud, 4/21, in Kitab al-ðibb, bab fi’l-kahin.
 Reported by Ahmad (2/359) with a jayyid isnad.
 See ‘Adiyy ibn Zayd al-‘Ibadi by the author, 172.
 See ‘Adiyy ibn Zayd al-‘Ibadi by the author, 172.
 Reported by Ahmad (3/265) with a hasan isnad.
 Aayat al-Saahbah, 3/329.
 See, for example, Al-Adhkar by Al-Nawawi and Fortification of the Muslim by Sa‘eed Ibn ‘Ali Ibn Wahf Al-Qahtani.
 Sahih Muslim, 17/53, Kitab al-riqaq, bab akthar ahl al-jannah al-fuqara wa akthar ahl al-nar al-nisa’.