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Why are two witnesses who are women, equivalent to only one witness
who is a man ?
1. Two female witnesses not always considered equal to one male
There are no less than three verses in the Qur’an which speak about witnesses
without specifying man or woman.
a) While making a will of inheritance, two just persons are required as
witnesses. In Surah Maidah chapter 5 verse 106, the Glorious Qur’an says:
“Oh you who believe! When death approaches any of you, (take)
witnesses among yourself when making bequests,– two just persons
of your own (brotherhood) or others from outside if you are journeying
through the earth and the chance of death befalls you.” [Al-Qur’an 5:106]
b) Two persons endued with justice in case of talaq.
“And take for witness two persons from among you, endued with
justice, and establish the evidence (as) before Allah”. [Al-Qur’an 65:2]
c) Four witnesses are required in case of charge against chaste women
“And those who launch a charge against chaste women, and produce
not four witnesses (to support their allegatios) flog them with eighty
stripes; and reject their evidence even after: for such men are wicked
[Al-Qur’an 24:4]
2. Two female witnesses is equal to male witness only in financial
It is not true that two female witnesses are always considered as equal to only
one male witness. It is true only in certain cases. There are about five verses
in the Qur’an that mention witnesses, without specifying male or female. There
is only one verse in the Qur’an, that says two female witnesses are equal to one
male witness. This verse is Surah Baqarah, chapter 2 verse 282. This is the
longest verse in the Qur’an and deals with financial transactions. It says:
“Oh! ye who believe! When ye deal with each other, in transactions
involving future obligation in a fixed period of time reduce them to
writing and get two witnesses out of your own men and if there are not
two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses
so that if one of them errs the other can remind her.” [Al-Qur’an 2:282]
This verse of the Qur’an deals only with financial transactions. In such cases,
it is advised to make an agreement in writing between the parties and take two
witnesses, preferably both of which should be men only. In case you cannot find
two men, then one man and two women would suffice.
For instance, suppose a person wants to undergo an operation for a particular
ailment. To confirm the treatment, he would prefer taking references from two
qualified surgeons. In case he is unable to find two surgeons, his second option
would be one surgeon and two general practitioners who are plain MBBS
Similarly in financial transactions, two men are preferred. Islam expects men to
be the breadwin ners of their families. Since financial responsibility is
shouldered by men, they are expected to be well versed in financial transactions
as compared to women. As a second option, the witness can be one man and
two women, so that if one of the women errs the other can remind her. The
Arabic word used in the Qur’an is ‘Tazil’ which means ‘confused’ or ‘to err’.
Many have wrongly translated this word as ‘to forget’. Thus financial
transactions constitute the only case in which two female witnesses are equal
to one male witness.
3. Two female witnesses equal to one male witness even in the case
of murder
However, some scholars are of the opinion that the feminine attitude can also
have an effect on the witness in a murder case. In such circumstances a woman
is more terrified as compared to a man. Due to her emotional condition she can
get confused. Therefore, according to some jurists, even in cases of murder,
two female witnesses are equivalent to one male witness. In all other cases,
one female witness is equivalent to one male witness. In all other cases, one
female witness is equivalent to one male witness.
4. Qur’an clearly specifies that one female witness equal to one male
There are some scholars who are of the opinion that the rule of two female
witnesses equal to one male witness should be applied to all the cases. This
cannot be agreed upon because one particular verse of the Qur’an from Surah
Noor chapter 24, verse 6 clearly equates one female witness and one male
“And those who launch a charge against their spouses, and have (in
support) no evidence but their own - their solitary evidence can be
received.” [Al-Qur’an 24:6]
5. Solitary witness of Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) is
sufficient for Hadith to be accepted
Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) the wife of the beloved Prophet has
narrated no less than 2220 Ahadith which are considered authentic only on her
solitary evidence. This is sufficient proof that one witness of a women can also
be accepted.
Many jurists agree that even one witness of a woman is sufficient for the
sighting of the crescent of the moon. Imagine one woman witness is sufficient
for one of the pillars of Islam, i.e. fasting and the whole Muslim community of
men and women agree and accept her witness! Some jurists say that one
witness is required at the beginning of Ramadaan and two witnesses at the end
of Ramadaan. It makes no difference whether the witnesses are men or women.
6. Female witnesses are preferred in some cases
Some incidents require only female witness and that of a male cannot be
accepted. For instance, in dealing with the problems of women, while giving the
burial bath i.e. ‘ghusl’ to a woman, the witness has to be a woman.
The seeming inequality of male and female witnesses in financial transactions
is not due to any inequality of the sexes in Islam. It is only due to the different
natures and roles of men and women in society as envisaged by Islam.


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